Surgical treatment (Peripheral Bypass)

Surgical treatment methods used for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease include peripheral bypass procedures and endarterectomy. Nowadays, these can be performed even at levels down to the ankle with minimally invasive interventions. Lesions that cause obstruction in the vessel, vessels containing more than one stenosis, or long-segmented severe stenosis are conditions that require surgical treatment. Bypass surgery is the provision of blood flow through a side path created from before to after the blocked area with a vein or a synthetic vein (known as a graft) taken from your body. In the endarterectomy procedure, the plaque layer that causes obstruction in the veins going to the arms or legs is removed.

Surgery Duration
2-6 hours
Recovery Time
6-12 Months
Discharge Time
3-7 Days

What is Vascular Occlusion?

vascular occlusion, that is. Peripheral artery diseaserefers to all arterial diseases except heart and brain. In short, it is a disease that occurs when the arteries that provide blood flow to the arms, legs and internal organs are completely or partially blocked due to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

Atherosclerosis causes peripheral vascular disease in two ways:

  1. While there should be a rapid increase in the amount of blood and oxygen sent to the tissues in moments when the need for oxygen increases, such as during exercise, atherosclerosis does not allow this increase due to the narrowing in the vessels and symptoms of the disease appear.
  2. Occlusion of an artery (artery) due to thrombus or embolism (blood clots) causes sudden lack of oxygen and malnutrition in the tissue.

Chest pain that occurs during exercise or intermittent leg pain that occurs with walking (intermittent claudication) are examples of situations where the increased oxygen and blood needs of the tissue cannot be met. In addition, stroke and heart attack are examples of sudden oxygen deficiency and malnutrition in the tissues as a result of complete blockage of the arteries with blood clots.

In rare cases, reduced blood flow to the arms or especially the legs as a result of peripheral vascular disease may result in open wounds, ulcers, gangrene or some other damage that is very difficult to heal. These areas do not receive enough blood and are very prone to infection. In advanced cases, amputation (cutting out gangrenous tissue) may be necessary.

Vascular Occlusion Risk Group

% 5 of adults over 50 years of age have peripheral vascular disease. Peripheral vascular disease is more common in men than in women. Known risk factors for peripheral vascular disease are the same as the causes of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). These risk factors are:

  • High levels of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides in the blood
  • Low levels of HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) in the blood
  • smoking
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) or a family history of hypertension
  • Family history of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
  • chronic kidney failure
  • Overweight or obesity

The risk increases even more when risk factors for peripheral vascular disease occur together. An individual with two risk factors is at greater risk than an individual with a single risk factor.

The most common symptoms are intermittent leg pain that occurs with walking (intermittent claudication) and, in advanced cases, leg pain at rest. The location and severity of the pain varies depending on the location of the vessel in which the blockage occurs and the degree of the blockage. The most common place for intermittent claudication is where the calf muscles are located (muscles in the back of the leg below the knee). This pain in the calf muscles only occurs during exercise such as walking or running, and the pain gradually increases as walking or exercise continues. Eventually, the patient becomes unable to withstand this increasing pain and is forced to stop. Then, with rest, the pain quickly disappears. Intermittent claudication may affect one or both legs

All About Atherosclerosis

Prof. Dr. Yavuz Beşoğul

One of the common health problems in societies is vascular occlusion. It may manifest itself with the accumulation of fat masses in the vascular walls. Genetic factors account for the largest proportion among the generalized causes of vascular occlusion, along with the knowledge obtained from past to present. In addition, vascular occlusion may manifest itself due to reasons such as high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, syphilis and gout, smoking and alcohol consumption.

In men, generally over the age of 40, and in women over the age of 40, periodic check-ups and regular examination of values such as blood cholesterol make it easier to perform important interventions in such diseases with early diagnosis and timely intervention. If the patient has hereditary problems inherited from the family, it is also important to perform regular examinations and check-ups regardless of any other condition. Timely intervention is very important due to the risks it carries.


Quitting smoking and dieting help reduce cholesterol and other fat levels in the blood and keep blood pressure under control.

Keeping diabetes under control. Regular exercise. Exercise not only helps the muscles use oxygen more effectively, but also accelerates the development of collateral circulation (a new vascular network consisting of small artery branches developed beyond the obstruction). Blood thinners (e.g. aspirin), Cholesterol lowering drugs (statins)

Symptoms of Vascular Occlusion

It is formed by the accumulation of lime and fat in the veins. Narrowing and blockage of the artery can cause severe chest pain. Symptoms of vascular occlusion may manifest as pressure and burning in the chest. The specified pain is generally not associated with a single area; pain occurring in a wide area can generally extend to the back, neck and left arm. As we mentioned, these are very common symptoms. It can also manifest itself in different ways. Other features of atherosclerosis include;

  • Swelling, numbness, numbness in the blocked area
  • Shortness of breath,
  • Nausea and Vomiting,
  • If there is cerebrovascular occlusion, visual and speech impairment, headache,
  • If there is vascular occlusion in the legs, numbness and pain in the feet, etc. may occur while walking and resting.

Symptoms such as these may be shown.

Vascular Occlusion Treatment

Diagnosing the problem of vascular occlusion occurs with the problems experienced in the area where the vascular occlusion occurs. Following a physical examination, diagnosis becomes easier with a number of tests that evaluate the veins. At the same time, vascular occlusion can be diagnosed with radiological tests. Vascular occlusion treatments can be applied in different ways depending on the patient's condition. These are applied according to the patient's condition.

There are several options for treatment methods. The first option is drug treatment. According to the results of the examinations performed on the patient, appropriate medications are given to the patient to prevent blood clotting and plaque formation in the vessels. Medication can be applied to lower the patient's blood pressure and cholesterol.

Another method for treating vascular occlusion is surgery. If the disease is advanced, bypass or angioplasty may be performed. vascular occlusion Bypass surgery is a common method used in many parts of the world. In angioplasty treatment, the vessels are mechanically inflated, opened and widened. After bypass surgery, the patient can continue his normal life.

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